The Responsible Gambling Fund commissions and funds research to support development of evidence-based policy and programs to support responsible gambling.
Our published research was either fully funded by the Responsible Gambling Fund (RGF) or undertaken in collaboration with other states and territories through Gambling Research Australia (GRA). Browse our comprehensive library of research reports on all aspects of gambling. They’re full of insights, and you’re welcome to cite them.
Published research 1995-2023
Skill-based Gambling in Australia
This study was commissioned by Gambling Research Australia to examine the risk of problem gambling and gambling-related harm associated with skill-based gaming machines (SGMs).
The report identified several specific risks associated with SGMs. It found gamblers may experience an increased illusion of control or have unrealistic expectations that they can win more money by playing longer and increasing their skills. SGMs were also found to be likely to encourage repeated play among those already experiencing a gambling problem.
NSW Youth Gambling Study 2022 – Qualitative ResearchThis study explores gambling, gaming and simulated gambling amongst young people aged 12-17 years in NSW.
Building on the NSW Youth Gambling Study 2020, this is the first study to conduct a large qualitative exploration of gambling transitions amongst young people in NSW and the key influences on these transitions.
Importantly, the study gave young people the opportunity to identify strategies and environments that can help to protect them against gambling harm.
The Role of Parents in Youth Gambling
This study builds on the findings of the NSW Youth Gambling Study 2020 that parents play a key role in facilitating youth gambling participation and that growing up with an adult affected by problem gambling uniquely predicts problem/at-risk gambling among adolescents.
The study involved an online survey of over 1,000 NSW parents living with an adolescent aged 12 to 17 years. It found that almost 80% of parents who gambled in the previous 12 months did so in the presence of their adolescent children. The study also revealed that a significant proportion of parents facilitate adolescent gambling, and that this facilitation strongly predicted adolescents gambling and experiencing gambling related harm. The research, which was conducted by CQUniversity, was funded by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
Impact of electronic gaming machine (EGM) late night play on EGM player behaviours
This research investigated the impact of electronic gaming machine (EGM) late-night gambling on the behaviours and profile of those engaging in late-night play.
The study surveyed 625 EGM users in NSW, finding that late-night EGM users were significantly more likely to be experiencing problem gambling. The later into the early hours of the morning (i.e., after 2am, and after 4am), the higher the problem gambling risk became. It also found that venue closures would limit access and reduce harm for late-night EGM users.
The research was conducted by Roy Morgan Research and commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
The Gambling Research Summary 2020-21
The Gambling Research Summary provides a snapshot of Australian and international gambling research published between January 2020 and September 2021, and it is the third in a series of research summaries commissioned by the Responsible Gambling Fund (RGF).
The review was organised around the six priority research themes of the RGF Research Agenda 2021-2024:
- Gambling prevalence and harm
- Individual and community level prevention and early intervention
- Efficacy and effectiveness of treatments
- Gambling among vulnerable groups
- Emerging technologies and new trends, and
- Regulation of gambling products, practices, and environments.
The summary identified a range of areas for future research including:
- following gamblers over a longer time-period, to better understand how and why people move between gambling risk categories
- measuring gambling harm in the community
- evaluating self-management programs and interventions for family and friends of gamblers
- understanding help-seeking behaviours and differing treatment responses
- exploring the impact of emerging technologies and trends in payment methods
- testing the effectiveness of responsible gambling tools and marketing restrictions, and
- the effectiveness of self-exclusion programs, particularly those using new technology to facilitate multi-venue exclusions.
A behavioural trial of voluntary opt-out pre-commitment for online wagering in Australia
The voluntary opt-out pre-commitment scheme is one of the measures to address gambling harm experienced by Australian online gamblers under the National Consumer Protection Framework for Online Wagering.
This study conducted a literature review, a discrete choice experiment and a randomised controlled trial to examine effective ways to increase the uptake of deposit limits among online sports and race bettors.
Behavioural trial for consistent gambling messaging under the national consumer protection framework
This study explored what types of safer gambling messaging may be most effective in leading changes in attitudes and behaviours of online gamblers. It tested a range of potential messaging themes through focus groups and a random controlled trial.
The study builds a strong evidence base to support the consistent gambling messaging measure under the National Consumer Protection Framework for Online Wagering.
The second national study of interactive gambling in Australia (2019-20)
This study was commissioned by Gambling Research Australia to examine changes in interactive gambling (also known as online gambling) since the first national Interactive Gambling Study in 2011-12.
With rapid technological changes and faster and more convenient access to mobile devices, online gambling is increasingly common and important to understand and monitor.
The research examined changes in online gambling behaviours and attitudes among Australians aged 18 years and over. It used a mix of methods, including secondary research, interviews, online and phone surveys.
NSW Youth Gambling Study 2020
The study aims to increase understanding of gambling and simulated gambling by young people aged 12-17 years in NSW, in order to prevent and reduce gambling harm.
How young people are engaging with gambling is changing. This change is being driven by rapid technological changes, the high-level of engagement of young people with mobile technology and gaming, the increase in traditional and online gambling advertising and the expanding variety of games with gambling-like components and monetary gambling opportunities.
A rapid review and research gap analysis: a 2020 update
This review aims to synthesise the findings of gambling literature published between 1 October 2018 and 23 April 2020 relating to harm prevention, minimisation, intervention and support and consider priority areas for future focus. The research, which was conducted by Dr Simone Rodda, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
Responsible conduct of gambling study
This study aims to contribute to the review and potential improvement of Responsible Conduct of Gambling (RCG) practices in NSW venues. The research, which was conducted by CQUniversity, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
Gambling Harm Minimisation Technology Assessment Project
This project report documents an assessment of the current and emerging landscape of harm minimisation technology both locally and internationally. The project was undertaken to:
- Provide clarity on the technological innovations to reduce gambling harm that are currently in use or planned across the gambling industry in NSW, Australia and Internationally, including their perceived efficiency
- Identify how technology could be used to reduce gambling harm and operator and regulator areas of interest
- Identify a prioritised list of research and development opportunities to guide future ORG and RGF investments.
The project ran from April 2020 to June 2020 and involved desktop research and interviews with local and international stakeholders including regulators, peak bodies, research organisations, gaming operators and technology providers.
Shutdown periods for electronic gaming machines
This report examines the harm-reduction impact of time-based access to electronic gaming machines (EGMs), from the perspective of current literature as well as EGM players. The study aims to further understand the benefits of shutdowns, and the optimum time of day to shut down EGMs to reduce gambling by at-risk and problem gamblers. The research, which was conducted by Snapcracker Research + Strategy, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
Literature review of the impact of EGM characteristics on gambling harm
This report examines literature concerning the design characteristics of electronic gaming machines (EGMs). The review focuses on the attitude and behaviours of gamblers with respect to different characteristics and identifies aspects of harm and responsible gambling associated with different characteristics. The research, which was conducted by Schottler Consulting, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
NSW Gambling Survey 2019 PDF
This report outlines the results of the NSW Gambling Survey 2019, conducted with adults aged 18 years and over living in NSW from November 2018 to February 2019. The NSW Gambling Survey 2019 was undertaken to understand gambling in NSW – who gambles, how gambling is changing, the extent of gambling harm in the community, and how different regions are affected. The research, which was conducted by CQUniversity, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
Responsible gambling and gambling harm minimisation research gap analysis
This report details the results of a rapid review of the gambling literature to produce a gap analysis and prioritise key areas and emerging issues for research that require further investigation. The review was undertaken to inform the Responsible Gambling Fund Research Agenda, which articulates research objectives and priority focus areas for the period 2019–2021. The research, which was conducted by Flinders University, was commissioned by the NSW Responsible Gambling Fund.
The harm minimisation impact of third party exclusion schemes and possible future directions for NSW
This research examined the potential for a third-party exclusion scheme for pubs and clubs in NSW. This involves family, close friends and potentially even venues being able to exclude or ban a person from a venue or venues to protect family or other parties (including the gambler) being affected by the person’s gambling. The research, which was conducted by Schottler Consulting, was commissioned by the NSW Government.
Research into the separation of ATMs and gaming machines in NSW
This research examined the potential for a minimum distance between cash devices (ATMs) and electronic gaming machines in NSW hotels and clubs to minimise the harm of problem gambling. The research, which was conducted by Schottler Consulting, was commissioned by the NSW Government.
Gambling harm-minimisation signage final research report
Registered clubs and hotels with gambling areas and the casino are required by legislation to display harm-minimisation signage. A research study was commissioned to identify the effectiveness of the signage in venues. The document outlines the research study and key findings, and provides suggestions for future opportunities for harm-minimisation signage.
Gambling harm minimisation report
This report determines the types of harm and demographics likely to be attributed to each gambling product, level of risk for harm for each gambling product, and the range of potentially effective strategies to help prevent the harm that may be associated with each gambling product. The gambling harm minimisation research, which was conducted by the University of Sydney Gambling Treatment Clinic, was commissioned by the NSW Government.
NSW Government response to gambling harm minimisation recommendations
This report presents the response of the NSW Government to each of the recommendations presented the Gambling harm minimisation report. The findings of the Gambling harm minimisation report will continue to be used by the government to ensure that rigorous safeguards remain effective at managing gambling-related harm in NSW. The gambling harm minimisation research, which was conducted by the University of Sydney Gambling Treatment Clinic, was commissioned by the NSW Government.
Impact evaluation of NSW Gambling Help services
This research evaluates the impact of gambling help services on problem gambling in NSW.
Innovation in traditional gambling products
This report investigates the effect of new innovative gambling products versus traditional counterparts on player behaviour in Australia.
The Role of Loyalty Programs in Gambling
This research examines the role that loyalty programs play in gaming machine gambling behaviour and problem gambling.
Responsible gambling and casinos
This research explores the relationship between Australian casinos and local gamblers, the regulatory environment and the effect of promotional and responsible gambling initiatives.
Gambler self-help strategies: A comprehensive assessment of self-help strategies and actions
This research provides a comprehensive list of self-help strategies and actions from a broad range of sources, and examines their uptake and helpfulness in an Australian context.
The Use of Social Media in Gambling
This research identifies and describes the availability and promotion of gambling and social casino game opportunities via social media.
Marketing of Sports Betting and Racing
This research explores the impact of sports and race wagering marketing on gambling behaviour and intention among Australians.
Impact of Structural Characteristics of Electronic Gaming Machines
This research identifies structural characteristics of Electronic Gaming Machines (EGMs) within Australia and examines how different structural characteristics affect gambling behaviour.
This research investigates how Australians are using interactive gambling services and the impact of interactive gambling on land-based gambling and gambling-related problems.
Validation Study of In-Venue Problem Gambler Indicators
The research sets out to validate a set of problem gambling behavioural indicators and identify people experiencing problems with gambling.
The Impact of Electronic Gambling Machine Jackpots on Gambling Behaviour
This research examines the impact of jackpots from electronic gaming machines on player behaviour.
Gambling and co-morbid disorder
This research examines the relationship between problem gambling and co-occurring disorders over time.
Prevalence of Gambling and Problem Gambling in NSW
This report presents the findings from the 2011 NSW Gambling Survey which was conducted among the NSW adult population to measure the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling.
Needs Analysis of the NSW Problem Gambling Counselling and Support Services Program
This report presents key findings of a Needs Analysis of the NSW Problem Gambling Counselling and Support Services Program.
Gamblers at Risk and their Help-seeking Behaviour
This report identifies and analyses gamblers’ formal and informal help-seeking behaviour to assist the development of evidence-based policy and program interventions.
Gambling and Young People in Australia
This report analyses gambling behaviour of young people in Australia and the extent to which gambling is similar to, or distinct from, other risk-taking behaviour. The report also examines possible risk inhibitors and enhancers relevant to gambling and the levels at which gambling becomes problematic or an indicator of future pathology.
International Student Gambling: The Role of Acculturation, Gambling Cognitions and Social Circumstances
This report investigates the gambling behaviour of international university students compared with domestic university students in Australia.
Correlates of Reported Gambling Problems in the CALD population of Australia
This report investigates gambling problems among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Australia.
Factors that Influence Gambler Adherence to Pre-Commitment Decisions
This report investigates factors which influence gambler pre-commitment behaviour.
Representations of Gambling in English and Non-English speaking Australian Media
This report investigates how gambling is reported in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in Australia and assesses the feasibility of developing alternative media representations of gambling in CALD contexts.
Exploring Indigenous Gambling
This report investigates various aspects of Indigenous gambling and problem gambling in several Indigenous communities in New South Wales and Queensland.
Children at Risk of Developing Problem Gambling
This report investigates risk factors associated with the development of gambling problems in children who have a family member with a gambling problem.
Influence of Venue Characteristics on a Player's Decision to Attend a Gambling Venue
This report examines the influence of particular venue characteristics on gambling behaviour, especially in relation to electronic gaming machines.
A 20 Game Survey of Gaming Machine Volatility in NSW
This report describes a novel method of categorising game volatility and explores commonality between the reinforcement schedules of ten popular and ten less popular games in NSW.
Gambling Module: NSW Population Health Survey 2008-2009
This report provides gambling related data, including problem gambling levels categorised by age, gender and socio-economic disadvantage, based on 9,408 telephone interviews.
The Definition and Predictors of Relapse in Problem Gambling
This report develops a definition of relapse, examines the predictors of relapse and proposes a model of relapse in problem gambling.
A Community Study – Employment Status and Gambling Pursuits in Greater Western Sydney
This report explores employment status and social recreational gambling pursuits in an urban community environment, with a focus on the relationship between residents' social environment and their leisure activities; the significance of access to local community recreational gambling venues; and the importance of employment status in relation to gambling activities.
A Review of Australian Gambling Research
This report provides a critical review of recent Australian gambling research and the extent to which this can be used to inform inter-jurisdictional and national public health policy, and inform national research priorities identified by Gambling Research Australia. Material reviewed in this report is derived from the period 1992 to June 2007, with emphasis on material dated 2003 – 2007.
Evaluation of the Six-Hour Shutdown of Electronic Gaming Machines in NSW
This report investigates the effectiveness of the 6 hour shutdown period of gaming machines in minimising gambling related harm.
Needs Analysis of Specialist Support Services for Problem Gambling Counselling in NSW
This report presents key findings of a comprehensive needs analysis of specialist support services for problem gambling counselling in NSW.
Pressing Problems – Gambling Issues and Responses for NSW Aboriginal Communities
Read the full report, part 2
This report explores the issue of gambling in a NSW Aboriginal community context to inform the development of future directions for action to prevent and alleviate gambling related problems and harms for Aboriginal people in NSW.
Prevalence of Gambling and Problem Gambling in NSW – A Community Survey 2006
This report outlines the findings from the 2006 NSW Gambling Survey which was conducted among the NSW adult population to assess the prevalence of gambling and problem gambling in NSW.
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Review of the Problem Gambling Treatment and Support Service provided by Life Activities Inc.This report reviews Life Activities Gambling Support Project to identify best practice strategies in the assessment, intervention and delivery of services to people with cognitive disability who have a gambling problem or are at risk of developing a gambling problem.
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Gambling: Promoting a Culture of Responsibility – Consequential Report on Governance Structures
This report investigates the effectiveness of current governance arrangements for the delivery of problem gambling policy and programs, with recommendations to ensure better co-ordination of policy development in this area.
Explaining the Attraction of Poker Machines: Cognition or Conditioning?
This report investigates the extent to which poker machine players choose the 'gamble' option and make stage two bets, and explores different theories of human behaviour that explain player attraction to the use of the gamble button.
Comparing Changes in Erroneous Beliefs/Perceptions, Subjective Arousal and Heart Rate between Cognitive Therapy and Imaginal Desensitisation in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling
This report investigates the therapeutic effect of cognitive therapy and imaginal desensitisation (relaxation-based technique) in the treatment of pathological gambling through common modes of action.
Gambling: Promoting a Culture of Responsibility
This report was conducted by the Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal to review the effectiveness of existing gambling harm minimisation measures and examine the impact of each measure on the general community, gamblers and problem gamblers.
The Identification of Near Misses in Electronic Gaming Machines and its Effect on Gambling Behaviour
This report explores factors that influence gambling on modern day electronic gaming machines, including the extent to which near misses influence gambling behaviour.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in NSW – Eighth Survey
This report presents findings from the eighth annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Withdrawal and Tolerance Phenomenon in Problem Gambling
This report compares and contrasts tolerance and withdrawal features in samples of gamblers and alcoholics as a preliminary attempt to test the addictions model of pathological gambling.
An Assessment of Member Awareness, Perceived Adequacy and Perceived Effectiveness of Responsible Gambling Strategies in Sydney Clubs
This report investigates club members' awareness, perceived adequacy and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies in Sydney clubs, following the enactment of the Registered Clubs Amendment (Responsible Gambling) Act 2000 NSW.
Assessment of the Research on Technical Modifications to Electronic Gaming Machines in NSW, Australia
This report reviews two research reports produced by the University of Sydney Gambling Research Unit and the Centre for International Economics. The research projects investigated the impact of proposed modifications to the operation of gaming machines on players and gaming venue revenue.
Read the full report here
The Economic Impact of Gambling
This report investigates and compares levels of gambling expenditure in the states and territories of Australia, and assesses the economic impact of gambling in Victoria.
Evaluation of the Impact of the Three-Hour Shutdown of Gaming Machines
This report establishes the impact of the three hour shutdown of gaming machines, specifically the impact on problem gambling, recreational gamblers, venues and the wider community.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Seventh Survey
This report presents the results of the seventh annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Testing of Harm Minimisation Messages for Gaming Machines
This report evaluates the impact and effectiveness on gambling behaviour, of a series of ten harm minimisation messages screened during play of poker machines.
The Psychological Causes of Problem Gambling - A Longitudinal Study of At-Risk Recreational EGM Players
This report investigates the psychological predictors of impaired control over gambling and discusses their implications for gambling policy and treatment for problem gamblers.
Attention Deficit Disorder as a Risk Factor for Problem Gambling in Adolescents
This report investigates the prevalence and nature of gambling in samples of adolescents and young adults with a diagnosis of ADHD compared to a non-clinical group drawn from schools.
Gambling and Criminal Behaviour – An Analysis of Local and District Court Files
This report assesses gambling related crime in NSW as documented in case files to increase recognition of the social and economic costs of gambling.
Losing What You Win – The Relationship Between Lump Sum Workers Compensation Payments, Social Security Preclusion Periods and Gambling
This report examines the relationship between lump sum workers compensations payments, Social Security preclusions and gambling following an increase in the number of clients being assisted for expending lump sum compensation payments on gambling activities.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Sixth Survey
This report presents the results of the sixth annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Comparison of the Treatment Effectiveness of Three Therapies for Problem Gambling
This study reports best practice in treating problem gambling by comparing three treatment methods: cognitive therapy (CT), GMAP counselling and self-help resources.
Gambling and Crime Research Project
This report investigates gambling related crimes committed in NSW in the period of 1995 – 1999. The investigation aims to determine the nature of the link between gambling and crime, and the direct and indirect social and economic impact of gambling related crime.
Impact Study into Cumulative Effects of Drug, Alcohol and Gambling Abuse on Families and Individuals in the Southern Shoalhaven
This report assesses the social costs of gambling, alcohol and substance abuse upon individuals and communities within the southern Shoalhaven area of NSW.
Problem Drinking/Problem Gambling – A Study of Co-morbid Individuals in NSW
This report investigates the proportion of problem drinkers who are problem gamblers and the proportion of problem gamblers that are problem drinkers, in order to define a population that could benefit from intervention or treatment.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Fifth Survey
This report presents the results of the fifth annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
The Assessment of the Impact of the Reconfiguration on Electronic Gaming Machines as Harm Minimisation Strategies for Problem Gambling
This report evaluates the differential impact of modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines (EGMs) on problem and recreational gamblers. The report also determines the possibility of negative unintended effects associated with the structural changes.
An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Treatment Program for Pathological Gamblers
This report provides empirical evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of specific treatment interventions for problem gamblers and various aspects of clinical management of pathological gamblers that guide best practice approaches to the development of comprehensive treatment programs for problem gamblers and their families in New South Wales.
Gambling Problems in a Multicultural Society
This report discusses the implications of cultural factors in the management of problem gambling among ethnic populations.
The Impact of the Sydney Casino on the Social Composition and Residential Amenity of the Residents of Pyrmont-Ultimo
This report integrates and synthesises findings of previous studies and most recent work on the impact of the Sydney Casino on the social composition and residential amenity of the residents of Pyrmont Ultimo.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Fourth Survey
This report presents the results of the fourth annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Youth Gambling in New South Wales
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Third Survey
This report presents the results of the third annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Money, Meaning and Gambling – A Qualitative Study of the Gambling Experiences of Some Young Homeless People in Inner Sydney
This report explores the issue of gambling from the perspective of young homeless people in Sydney, to inform policy decisions about appropriate services and interventions.
An Examination of the Socio-Economic Effects of Gambling on Individuals, Families and the Community, including Research into the Costs of Problem Gambling in New South Wales
This report presents updated findings from an earlier 1995 study on the socio-economic effects of gambling on individuals, families and the community.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales –Second Survey
This report presents the results of the second annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Evaluating the Current and Future Adequacy of Services for Problem Gamblers in Sydney
This report evaluates current and future adequacy of services available to social, demographic and ethnic populations in Sydney that are identified as most at risk of developing problem poker machine gambling behaviours.
Poker Machine Playing and Problem Gambling Amongst Members of Sydney's Registered Clubs
This report compares social, demographic and ethnic characteristics of poker machine players, including problem poker machine players, in some of the largest Sydney registered clubs.
Problem Gamblers Receiving Counselling or Treatment in New South Wales – Baseline Survey
This report presents the results of the first annual survey of counsellors providing services for problem gamblers.
Young People, Gambling and the Internet
This report explores youth attitudes to gambling and their knowledge and experiences of online gambling. The report also analyses experts and service providers’ level of awareness of control security mechanisms to regulate young people’s access to online gambling services.
A Preliminary Exploration of the Positive and Negative Impacts of Gambling and Wagering on Aboriginal People in NSW
This report analyses data from a survey of Aboriginal respondents in New South Wales on the impacts of gaming and wagering.
Study 2 – An Examination of the Socio-economic Effects of Gambling on Individuals, Families and the Community, including Research into the Costs of Problem Gambling in NSW
This study examines the socio-economic effects of gambling on individuals, families and the community via three main components: an appraisal of the importance of gaming and wagering to the NSW economy; a door-knock survey; and an appraisal of the economic costs of problem gambling to the NSW community.
Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Resident Populations Supporting Poker Machine Playing in Sydney's Registered Clubs
This study represents the first stage of a larger project examining poker machine playing behaviour in Sydney registered clubs. This report identifies the social and demographic characteristics that tend to support registered clubs and their poker machine gaming activities in the Sydney Statistical Division.